Evidence collated by the World Health Organization (WHO) from human epidemiological studies links endocrine-disrupting chemicals with a wide variety of health effects including reproductive effects, neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental changes, the metabolic syndrome, bone disorders, immune disorders and cancers.
Bisphenol A (BPA), first synthesised in 1891, has been widely used since the 1950s in the manufacture of polycarbonates.
Bisphenol binds to the oestrogen receptors and it is a potent activator of the oestrogen pathway.
BPA is a chemical found widely in the environment in plastics, medical devices, flooring, pipelines and thermal paper coatings. It can be absorbed orally in the diet, by drinking, inhalation and dermal contact, and is even present in breast milk, cord blood and amniotic fluid.
There is an association of antenatal BPA exposure with adult testicular function and a marginal positive correlation with sperm concentration and motility.